Electric Vehicles, EVs, Vehicle to House (V2H) and Vehicle to Grid (V2G)

• In 2020 I bought a Tesla model S Long Range

•50,000 miles in 3.5 years. It is our preferred car for long-distance travel

•The Tesla Supercharging network is convenient and reliable. GM & Ford will have access to it in ‘24

•We stop every 150 miles or so (every 2-3 hours) for coffee/stretch & add 100 miles of range in 15 mins. There is NO range anxiety. 360-mile range on full charge.

•It is more comfortable than a BMW 3 series or BMW X5 and has more storage space

•Our son went to university in one trip with his bike on the roof and a passenger

•A Tesla Model S costs about $85k. which is still very expensive. However a Model 3 now costs about $26k after the federal tax credit and new MOR-EV MA rebates. For example: The list price of a new Tesla Model 3 is $37k – $7.5k FTC., – $3.5k MA = $26k which means a lease rate of around $375 a month. A new BMW 3 Series has a list price of $42k. So a new Tesla Model 3 is far cheaper to buy than a BMW 3 series. Also, a new Ford F150 Lightening costs $75k – $7.5k federal tax credit – $7.5k MA = $60k. A new gas-powered F150 is $45k.

•The new BYD Atto3 has a 270m range and is priced at under $20k (not available in US yet, already top selling EV in Sweden). A new Toyota Corolla costs over $20k. 

EVs are now cheaper to buy than gas cars!

•On utility electricity (35c/kWh) I can go to NYC (200 miles) for $18 or $4 at solar-panel rates (8c/kWh). BMW 3 Series at 20 mpg & $4/gallon costs $40. Using electricity from my solar panels, I save $2,700/yr. or about $225/mo. a year on gas. The net present value of this (NPV) @3%=$90k. So the savings on gas are worth more over the lifetime of ownership that what I paid upfront for the Model S which was $85k. You can lease a new Model 3 for a net cost of $150/mo. 

If you subtract the monthly savings on gas (about $225) from the lease rate for Model 3 of about $375 a month you have a net cost to drive of about $150 per month. The cheapest lease I can find for a gas-powered vehicle is $269/month for a Chevrolet Equinox.

EVs are now cheaper to drive than gas cars.!

•I have spent zero on maintenance / servicing of my Tesla Model S in 3.5 years. Except: tires last 20k miles not 40k. 

EVs are now cheaper to buy,  run,  & maintain than gas cars. 

Vehicle to Home and Vehicle to Grid.

V2H (vehicle-to-home) uses your EV to replace your back-up generator

V2G (vehicle-to-grid) uses your EV to reduce peaker-plant usage on the grid

•not useful in MA, because we have no (time of day) TOD electrical tariff (there should be!!). A TOD tariff is where the price of electricity is higher during periods of high demand (usually mid afternoons in summer when people use AC) and lower at night. CA has this type of tariff but MA does not.

V2H is already on Nissan Leaf (with charge station) and Ford F150 Lightening. 

•It will be standard on Teslas in 2025, all GM EVs in 2026, Kia EV9 in 2024

•This could be accelerated by legislation requiring it, but a bill in CA recently failed

My Ford F-150 Lightening has 100kWh of storage (7x a Tesla Powerwall!), it has 4 x 110V outlets in the truck bed. These can run things like: circular saws, lights, refrigerator, microwave, espresso – awesome tailgating/movies! Plus 220V for V2H. 

•It will run my house for 5 days (without the heat pumps), a Powerwall would run it for a day. The F150 Lightening could also charge my Tesla.

•The Ford F150 Lightening costs $75k less $7.5k FTC and $7.5k MA rebate = $60k. Regular Ford F150 is about $45k plus $62k for 7 Powerwalls(=100kWh) = $107k

•The Ford F150 Lightening is a huge battery on 4 wheels.  It is also a very nice truck! It has been on order for 2 years. Don’t get a house battery or new generator – get V2H!

In 2021, I ordered 3 different home batteries (from Generac, Sonnen and EnPhase at about 15kWh each) to go with existing and new solar-panel arrays (this is how you get the SMART MA subsidy for batteries) for our house and two rental properties we own. THIS IS VERY COMPLEX!

•I was faced with replacing propane powered back-up generators at all 3 houses

•Would have cost $5k per house plus $500 a year for maintenance/service

•The batteries were about $20k each after installation, none was a Tesla Powerwall

•Powerwall cannot both run the house and charge from solar panels together making it useless during lengthy power outages in winter. It is designed for power arbitrage (CA), not back-up generation (MA)! This can be alleviated if you buy the Tesla inverter. A friend just installed two Powerwalls plus this inverter and it cost $23,500 in MA.

•The batteries+arrays were profitable (5-10% IRR) vs. arrays alone (10-15% IRR)

•A 15kWh battery will run my house (but not the heat pumps) for a day

•Not enough! We have had 3-day power outages at our house

•In late 2021 I ordered the Lightening (with a 100kWh battery = 7 PWs)

•In 2023 I cancelled all 3 battery orders. With V2H on most vehicles by 2025, don’t get a back-up generator or house battery – get V2H!

The V2H and V2G capabilities of EVs are one of the main reasons we need a time of day tariff for electricity in MA. CA has it and it is essential to reducing peaker plant usage on hot summer afternoons as well as saving money by charging your battery at night and using it during the day.

The introduction of this tariff would have a huge impact on greenhouse gas emissions. It would also allow low-income households to reduce their electric bills substantially by, for instance running the dishwasher and clothes dryer (and charging their EVs) at night.